Female Reproductive System
It is the hollow cavity situated in the lower abdomen in-between the large
intestine and the urinary bladder. The prime function of the uterus is to
be prepared every month for the fertilization and formation of the fetus,
accept the entry of the sperms at the time of fertilization, nourish and
take care of the fetus during the nine months of pregnancy.
These are two in number and are situated at two sides of the uterus. They
are approximately of the size and shape of the almond, and are connected
to the uterus through the fallopian tubes. The main function of the ovaries
is to produce the egg (ovum) once every month, which can unite with the
sperm and produce the fetus. Another important function of the ovaries
is the secretion of the female reproductive hormones, which play a very
important role in a woman's life right from puberty till menopause. The
uterus and the ovaries are kept tightly placed in the abdominal cavity
by means of various ligaments.
These two tubes connect the ovaries with the uterine cavity. When the
egg becomes mature and pops out of one of the ovaries, it enters the fallopian
tube where it might be fertilized and then sent to the uterus for further
development and growth.
This is the path having external opening in the external genitalia, through
which menstrual blood oozes out, and which also serves as the path of
the full-grown fetus at the time of delivery.
These are the glands that supply nourishment to the infant in the form
of milk. To serve the purpose of production of healthy and profuse amount
of milk, they are provided with a profuse blood supply.
Physiology or the normal functioning of the female reproductive system
The entire functionality of the female reproductive system is dependent
on the hormones secreted by the ovaries, i.e., estrogen and progesterone,
which are controlled by the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland situated
in the center of the brain. These hormones carry out the following functions
in a woman's system:
Start the monthly menstrual flow or the onset of menarche along
with the development of the ovum or the egg once every month.
Cause menstrual blood to flow every month and stop it after 4-6
Initiate and complete the development of the female secondary sexual
characteristics such as enlargement and development of the breasts, hair
growth in the armpits, and on the vulva, feminization of the voice, and
accumulation of fats on the buttocks and thighs.
Cause the changes in the internal uterine wall and preparing the
uterus every month for receiving the fetus and shred the entire inner
uterine wall if the fertilization does not take place.
In case the pregnancy follows, take care of the growth of the fetus
and prevent untimely delivery / abortions, and facilitate childbirth after
the maturation of the fetus is complete in the uterus.
Prepare the breasts for lactation during pregnancy and cause the
adequate lactation after childbirth.